Week 8/ No Boundary Universe// Yu Hsiao

Our perception of size, space, and boundary changes over time, from the time we were born, to the time we are living right now. As we are babies, our concept of the size of our world, might be just the vast space of the room our cradle is in. As we are kids, the world might be as big as the few blocks of your neighborhood, or the city. Then after we attend school, and learn more about the world, we realize that the world is much bigger than we thought it is. We live on a place called Earth, and we are so small, that if you are out in space and looked at the earth as a whole, you probably cannot see a single human being, but vast oceans of blue and the vast lands of green and whites of clouds. It is mind boggling, to think that it takes six hours to drive from here, in Los Angeles to Northern California, the Silicon Valley, and that this is only a small part of space of the whole earth. After that, we get the solar system, which spans as far as 3666 miles across to our last planet, (no longer considered a planet), Pluto. Then after that we get galaxies, and universe, which spans billions of light years away. I’ve always pondered on this question since I was young: Does the universe ever have an end? Or boundary? Could we really explore the meanings of infinity if we took the time and just travelled “forever” ?
According to Einstein’s theories: 
http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/EinsteinLegacy.html,
he believed the space and time are one entity. We can think of space the y axis and time as the x axis of a coordinate plane. But this plane is like a trampoline, it could be distorted and bent by masses of great magnitude. So imagine if you sit on a trampoline in the very middle, the trampoline would dip down of course. If your friend placed objects like balls around the trampoline, the balls would naturally roll toward you, because the trampoline plane is no longer flat, but a curved slope toward the middle where you are sitting. If we think that space-time in the sense of universe, then the massive galaxies with great masses would act as the object like you, and distort and curve the space-time curve. Therefore, objects of great masses would attract objects scattered around the universe toward the center of the massive mass.  So that said, various stars, comets, galaxies, objects would eventually come together as one caused by the gravity attraction from the curvature of space-time. But if that’s the case, galaxies and stars would be closer to each other by now, into one big clustered mass.
But clear that is not the case. Earth should be getting closer and closer to the sun, and so should the other planets. Instead, the universe is expanding.

http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/Cosmos/ExpandUni.html
Proven by Hubble, he showed that the light emitted from stars far away is stretched due to the Doppler’s effect, like the sound of a train moving away or close to you. Hubble discovered that the farther away moves farther away from us at a higher velocity. So no matter what galaxy we are in, we are essential moving farther away from all the other galaxies, therefore, the space of the universe is constantly expanding. So it’s almost impossible for us to travel to the boundary of the universe, because it is constantly changing, and expanding and getting bigger. It is mind boggling to think that the capacity of space is reaching infinity. So space is a limitless possibility where the universe just never stops expanding and growing.

http://www.everythingforever.com/hawking.htm, in this article, Stephen Hawking’s proposals are being discussed, where universe exists in two types of time. The universe might have no boundary in our sense of time. The universe might have a finite extent in another sense of time, called imaginary time, where this time is defined as the time perpendicular to our sense of real time. In real time, scientists concluded that the universe had a beginning called the Big Bang, and possibly an end where the universe collapses into a black hole. Hawking suggests that the universe could exist in imaginary time, where the universe has no beginning and no end. The making of a universe only depend upon the laws of physics involved. I thought this idea was related to the 10 dimensions idea. Where at the 7th dimension, there could be different universes existing, or what we can call a simultaneous present, where maybe, an identical person of you is existing in another universe in a different and unique imaginary time. With this idea, I think this proves that space-time is even more than infinity, because the sizes that we’re talking about are too big. With our own universe being infinitely large and expanding, we’re talking about other universes that might exist in a different time frame of imaginary time, or in another 7th dimension.

With these researches, I conclude that I as a person is so tiny and insignificant compared to everything that might simultaneously exist right now. I’m just a tiny figment of existence in the vastness of universes that exist. So I guess I can’t really answer the question: Is there really a boundary to the universe? Or to the world, to the place where we’re in? Since universe is already too large to consider, and that there are other universes existing simultaneously. Therefore, there are no boundaries. There are no limits.

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