Archive for March, 2009

Beatriz da Costa’s Invisible Earthlings Extra Credit by Mindy Truong

Tuesday, March 17th, 2009

It’s simple to not be aware of the microscopic organisms that are around us because it cannot be seen with our bare eyes. It usually escapes our minds that a bench is not only a bench; it is a home for various microscopic bacteria. There exists a world beyond the one we witness, a microscopic world, which is unseen to us; it is invisible. Beatriz da Costa displays these “Invisible Earthlings” to us in seven individual installations. These interactive installations include seven touch screen Nokia devices set along the walls next to Petri dishes that contain the specimen. Beatriz da Costa collected these specimens in various locations including the bench, trash can, gate, garage and etc. She took these specimens and using microscopic devices, examined and identified what type of microorganisms they were. From the interactive touch screen devices we were able to further educate ourselves with what the microorganism is.

Beatriz da Costa wanted to create a connection between these “Invisible Earthlings” and ourselves. Da Costa wanted to increase the awareness and visibility of these “earthlings” to us. These microbes usually go unnoticed by humans until it directly affect us on a macroscopic way. These microscopic organisms have a major impact our on daily lives even though they are unseen and thus invisible to us. They play a huge role in our daily lives, affecting us directly. They are everywhere and anywhere around us. We can witness them in da Costa’s installation, showing us a human 20/20 view to a microscopic view of these organisms. The fact is that these organisms exist all around us but we neglect to become aware about them because we restrict ourselves to learning about higher species such as animals and plants that can be seen. However, these microbes play a huge role in our ecosystem and we depend on them. For example, there are microscopic bacteria in our stomach that help us in digestion but it usually goes unnoticed because it can’t been seen. We should try to expand our knowledge beyond what is only visible with our eyes.

Da Costa aims to bridge a connection between these invisible earthlings and humans thus making us more alert to them. Examining the installations that she set up, I became of how unaware I am of these microorganisms. Even as a science major I sometimes forget that they exist because it is hard to notice beyond what the eyes can see. These organisms make such common things around us as their home, such as a bench or trash can or flower. They claim it their home even if we are oblivious it. Many of the microbes that were in da Costa’s installations were new names to me. I had no idea what their role was or what they looked like, and it just shows me that I myself forget of their existence and should be more knowledgeable of their existence.

Mindy Truong

Slow Food extra credit by Khoa Truong-N

Tuesday, March 17th, 2009

Since when has gastronomy become a career choice?  Well, according to David Szanto, gastronomy is an emerging field in not only Europe but the United States as well.  To gain a better understanding of what gastronomy is though, we need to first examine what exactly the word “gastronomy” means.  “Gastro” is interpreted as “stomach” while  “nomos” means “law”, so literally translated, gastronomy means “stomach law”.  So now that we know what gastronomy in terms of language, we need to look at the word from an ideological perspective.  According to Szanto, gastronomy can also be thought of as gourmet food, a meal that is the direct result of meticulous detail and relentless effort.  This is where Slow Food comes in.  Like its name implies, Slow Food is the exact opposite of fast food, it is a counter to the mass-produced, processed, canned and frozen foods that society has come to eat on a daily basis.  Slow Food also acts as a reminder that food is part of the environment and shouldn’t be tampered with too much.  Society has come to associate the word “fast” with the idea “good”, and Slow Food attempts to slow down this acceleration of human existence by providing food that is best enjoyed being eaten over a long period of time.
Slow Food has been in existence for a while now, and I have even had the chance to attend of their events in San Francisco last summer.  It was an interesting experience to say the least; all the food was completely naturally without any chemical enhancements.  The food was as good as it looked and smelled that day although a meal could be quite pricey.  It was encouraging to see hundreds of people of the fair, trying the next generation of healthy foods.  This is what Slow Food has been trying to do over the past years, educate the masses about the importance of a good home-cooked meal.  This is why Slow Food helped co-found the University of Gastronomic Sciences.  Each year, the university trains a number of students to become gastronomes.  At this 3-4 year university, students will travel all throughout Europe to literally learn the science of food.  After this period in time, they will either have the option to either leave the university to educate others in gastronomy or stay for another couple of years to further their education.  Overall, I think that this is a good idea, especially for American citizens since they would have the opportunity to study and travel all over Europe.
Although I felt that at the lecture Szanto was promoting the University of Gastronomic Sciences, the lecture was still somewhat interesting.  However, I found it a little strange that some restaurants that sell the type of food Szanto mentioned for hundreds of dollars per meal.  I understand that this type of food takes time and effort to make, but for someone to say that food is a “common language and universal right” and then make meals that only the wealthy could afford is in a little hypocritical in a way.  Don’t get me wrong though, I appreciate what the Slow Food movement is fighting for, but I just don’t think that they should state that everyone has the right to a meal and then cater only to people with the money to pay for expensive gourmet meals.  Overall though, the idea of having a university devoted solely to gastronomy is noteworthy and has the potential for spreading Slow Food awareness.

-Khoa Truong-N

Extra Credit: Michael Century presentation, by Erick Romero

Monday, March 16th, 2009


We closed our lectures series for this class with a session at the very modern and new California NanoSystem Institute Auditorium.  We started with some of the best Final Student Projects that didn’t get to present at our Tuesday lecture.  I was impressed by some of the projects presented at Tuesday and Thursday’s lectures.  I really liked the one that uses dance to explain some of the research and potential of stem cell research.  Forgive me, I forgot the girl’s name, it’s kind of late, but I really liked her dance movements and the idea behind it, it was very artistic.

After a short break we had a guest lecturer come over.  Michael Century gave a presentation on the history of interactions between science and art, what he called “Interdisciplinarity”, and how it has influenced and acted thought different phases of society.  One fact I found very interesting was the story about Galileo and his apprentice, who was focused on Art and not science as Galileo was.  I thought it was very odd that Galileo would have an apprentice who was an artist.  But this is what the point of this class has been, and one of Century’s main points: “interdisciplinarity”.  Science and Art have influenced each other for the longest time, and it is when they work together that some of the best discoveries and inventions come out.  Leonardo Da Vinci is one of the many examples of it, followed by many others.

Another interesting thing about Century’s lecture was the fact that periods of great discoveries and innovations come in ‘wave’ cycles.  These waves have a peak period, when the best inventions and discoveries have been made, and then a down period, when no major events happen, and sometimes these down periods have matched with depressions, economic difficulty, wars, and others.  As time has progressed and our technology gets better, the lapse between each wave has gotten shorter.  It looks like we are currently in a down period, due to the economy and terrorism worldwide, but these times are probably when someone is cooking up the next best invention, which might mean it’s not such a bad thing after all.


Wave Cycles of Innovation

Wave Cycles of Innovation


Century’s presentation served well as an ending act for the class.  He touched on topics that we had discussed during lectures.  The importance of collaboration between art and science is today more necessary than ever.  They complement each other, and inspire the other when necessary.  There is no really dominant party, although I have to admit I used to think Science dominated art.  But there are times when an artist will come with the driving idea of something new, and the scientists comes to make it happen.  And there are other times when an artist will inspire from a technological or scientific breakthrough, and use it to create art or make something esthetically better.  But the constant collaboration between them will always be better than if just one of them worked on something.

After Century’s presentation we went to have some refreshments on the fifth floor.  I have to say that this class opened my eyes to many ideas and concepts I wouldn’t have known other way.  Being an engineering major, we don’t really have much exposure to art and philosophical concepts, so I was glad that I decided to take this class.  I really enjoyed it, and learned more than I thought.

By Erick Romero.

extra credit — Beatriz da Costa : Invisible Earthlings—-shiyang zheng

Sunday, March 15th, 2009

Before attending the exhibition of invisible earthlings, I could never image how small things–microbes could change our life dramatically. In this exhibition, the microbes such as staphylococcus and bacillus are shown. For instance, staphylococcus usually resides on skin. If you don’t wash your hand, staphylococcus might spread toxin that commonly causes food poison. There are many other kinds of microbes that locate at bench, gate, and anywhere surround our living environment. They might cause deadly diseases, and also benefits for your physical health. However, most people have some vague notion about the importance of microbes in our ecosystems, microbes commonly only receive our attention when they are perceived to cause problems.

773px-staphylococcus_aureus_01                                                                                      photo of  staphylococcus


photo-15                             microbes sample on the table; touchscreen on the top, which tell you the information about the microbes: location, disease, structure etc

photo-16                             photo of microbes


                             exhibition room!

The role of microbes in our ecosystem remains the butterfly effect and chaos theory. Small variations of the initial condition  of a daynamical system may produce large variations in the long-term behavior of the system. We are living in the world of randomness. Because there are so many thing is unpredictable due to the lack of knowledge and science. The weather was unpredictable in the past, and was believed as superposition.   The weather is now predictable because of technology and science, because we understand the reason and the theory behind randomness.  I realized how important we should keep our room clean and tidy. If I have another project, I would be interested in developing a tool to detect and clean the microbes that is harmful to our human body, and fosters those are beneficial to our health. 


extra credit ” LINDA WEINTRAUB” —-shiyang zheng

Sunday, March 15th, 2009

A new view of the meaning of beauty was presented by LINDA WEINTRAUB, who is an artist, curator, educator, and the author of Avant-Guardians. Instead of focusing on virtual beauty such as painting, Linda introduced imaginary beauty, elevated the meaning of beauty to a new level, a new field of study. What is imaginary beauty? Different from virtual beauty, Imaginary beauty concerns on the association of the object, but the material appearance.

In 1960, an artist called Sophia did an interesting survey about the meaning of the beauty. She asked the blind people in hospital, what is beauty? Some said the sea, because is peaceful and relaxing. Some said forest, because it is refreshing. Amazingly, the beauty even connects to blind people. The blind can’t see the world, however, they can sense beauty, and associate their spiritual world with beauty. The association can also be something cultural and traditional.

Personally, I very agree Linda’s imaginary view of beauty. Today, the beauty is no longer purely virtual satisfaction. We sense beauty from ears, nose, skin, and more importantly — our feeling. In many art exhibitions today, there are more and more abstract art associates with imaginary beauty. For example:abstract-art-41


What are they? It’s very hard to understand, because the pattern is unclear and well structured.  But you will get a certain impression that associates with certain feeling or emotion. In order to understand, you need to open your imagination/ associates with your life experience etc. Abstract art is the art between you and artwork, it depends how you communicate with it. Therefore, there is no certain/right answer in this kind of format of presentation.

The abstract art is the art in 19th and 20th century. The art today is still abstract but more applicable such as propagation of environmental protection. Linda then starts to explain the relation between beauty of ecology system and human. In her opinion, the beauty defines your relationship between you and the world. , What does beauty look like when it relates to ecology system, environment issue, how many ways of the beauty can be presented? She mentioned an artist Andy Goldsworthy using natural materials and all by hands for his artworks. He demonstrates how we could protect our environment at the same time make it beautiful. The other artist Denial Charles, his art works are sharp and disgusted. His show of human death is ugly. However, he successfully evokes public response and understanding of the importance of beauty, the importance to cherish the earth and life.


“Ecological concepts of continuity and interdependence are renegade forces. They not only transform existing patterns of material consumption and production, they destabilize social values and disrupt aesthetic conventions. Even the notion of beauty is overhauled by the ecological mandate to embrace all aspects of the life cycle – decay as well as growth. Artists who demonstrate radical beauty are renegade aestheticists. They demonstrate that the greening of society depends as much upon revising human values as reforming human behaviors.”


Extra Credit: Beatriz de Costa “Invisible Earthlings” Exhibit - Alana Chin

Sunday, March 15th, 2009

When I first heard of this exhibit, I actually first envisioned human-like figures that were “invisible.” Maybe transparent or ghostly representations of humans or even aliens. For some reason it never occured to me that this was talking about small organisms like bacteria. This exhibit was a surprisingly small exhibit of several stations set up around the room. Each station had three petri dishes of colonies of different kinds of bacteria collected from different places. Mounted above each station was some sort of interactive electronic device that looked like a GPS system. This GPS device told the viewer where these samples of bacteria were collected. One station was collected from a bench of bacillus, staphylococcus, and chrysosporum. One station from a porch had sedosporium. One station from inside a garage was a mixed media of rhizopus, gliocladum, and lactobacillus. And then another station from under a trashcan had corynebacterium, yeast, and serratia marceescen. At first I thought there had to be more to this exhibit. It seemed so bare and minimal and I did not know how this related to art. After I realized that this was it, I went in for a closer look. It seems that Beatriz de Costa is trying to tell us that all of these organisms are living and flourishing in places we never really think about. Especially since they are so small, these bacterial colonies are often overlooked even though they have impressive collective numbers in the millions. And then it hit me, “Invisible Earthlings!” Ohhh, not people or ghosts you can not see, but the little organisms that are just too small to be seen. Beatriz de Costa wants us to open our eyes to the other living creatures that impact our lives even though we might not realize it. And these things exist in our world and influence others just as much as we do.

Right now the word “perspective” rings through my head. But at the time, I honestly did not know why this was so important. I can appreciate the exhibit for trying to educate the public and increase awareness of these overlooked things, but I did not see the bigger picture. At first I thought that alright, it’s good to know that we are not the only ones out there and I suppose that humans tend to think that we are the only important beings out there. It is good that this serves to “put us in our place” if you will. However, I am not entirely sure that this was the main intention. Is she trying to help us visualize these otherwise “invisible” earthlings to just give us an image to the name? Or is she trying to use perspective by showing us how large we are in comparison to how small bacteria is? Is this then to be extrapolated to compare our size to the universe, meaning that we are then just as insignficant to the universe as tiny bacteria are to us? Is this then why the exhibit was held in a small and otherwise empty room? The room was small and intimate, possibly for us insignificant beings to unite with eachother and find community? Were we supposed to connect with the bacteria and realize that we aren’t really that different from eachother? To put all of these sizes and differences, I looked up comparisons and found this diagram.

In the end, I suppose this is why we appreciate art so much. There are so many different kinds of interpretations and messages. There really isn’t a “right” way to interpret art. I suppose there may be the artist’s “intepretation,” just as anyone else would have their own interpretation. The important thing is that you form an intepretation, and actually think about the piece. Because overall, isn’t art just a catalyst to stir thought and conversation?

~Alana Chin

Extra Credit: My (Last Post and) Take on the Modes of Interdisciplinarity in Art and Techno-science by Ryan Andre Magsino

Sunday, March 15th, 2009

Extra Credit: My (Last Post and) Take on the Modes of Interdisciplinarity in Art and Techno-science by Ryan Andre Magsino

What better way to wrap the course than with none other than Michael Century, Professor of New Media and Music in the Arts Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Professor Century spoke of the Modes of Interdisciplinarity in Art and Techno-science. His first point of emphasis was on the historical horizons between the integration of science and technology.

Professor Michael Century (on the right)

Professor Michael Century (on the right)

According to Professor Century, there were two alternating modes of Interdisciplinarity, stability and threshold. Periods of stability referred to eras in which there were little to no contact between scientists and artists whereas periods of threshold were quite the opposite and even included hybrids among occupational spectrums. Such hybrids were discovered in the peak of the threshold periods. Two recent threshold periods would be the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution to present. In the peak of the Renaissance, intellectual scientists such as the likes of Leonardo da Vinci were highly acclaimed especially during their time. Nowadays we pay homage to the multitudes of genius and hardworking intellectual scientists in recent times such as Einstein. Meanwhile, the eras of stability were the periods of time before and after the threshold periods. Historically initiated by the rise of subjective morality and the unregulated (and sometimes unethical) advancement of science, periods of stability stunted were times in which the two cultures were split apart; and in most cases, the scientists were shunned from their passion.

Making sense of Professor Century’s Reasoning
Stability (Middle Ages) à Threshold (Renaissance) à Stability (Modern) à Threshold (Industrial Revolution) à ???

I find there to be only one issue according to this imposed trend. For one, these periods in time encompass several others. I presume this trend applies to the general overall picture, but what if we were to look even closer? Breaking down the overall time periods into smaller fractions, the trend would probably jump around from maybe going from one threshold period to 3 periods of stability. Now, I am no historic expert, but I am vaguely sure that the Modern Era was not merely an age of scientific ignorance.


Moving on, another essential point Century brought up were the “waves of innovation.” Taking a look at Schumpeter’s Waves Accelerate, we see an exponential rise in revolutionary technology and a decrease in time intervals between each wave. This would imply that we are currently at the peak or steadily declining in technological advancement/application. However, I again hold several problems with this piece of information. For one, the time interval from wave to wave predicts shorter and shorter lapses of time from revolutionary technology to revolutionary technology. Taking the graph even further, are we to presume that in the year 2090, scientific and technological revolutions will be a common anomalies every 3 or so years? Also, can’t we eliminate the down slope and simply transition into another revolutionary period?

Century did somewhat provide an answer to these questions when looking at the three ways of looking at people working in Interdisciplinary ways. The first is integrative – somewhat of a synthesis of the old and new information. I guess a simple modern example would be a Nintendo Wii’s ability to play both new games as well as games from its former system the Gamecube. Second we have service – one technique serves as a means to an end. This happens a lot when artists and scientists are trying to up-another. In this sense, the artist comes up with something possible yet challenging to engineer. In turn the scientist attempts to tackle the problem. This method loops and often keeps the respected fields either on one side or integrating them. Lastly, we come upon reflexive/ontological – challenging the very foundational principles of a field. Century offered multiple examples of artistic revolutions. In contrast, the sciences have seen much principle change in the last few centuries itself. One of my favorites would be rise of quantum mechanics in order to explain things on a smaller scale. This discovery completely revolutionized the way we look at look at matter.

Lastly, I would just like to leave this last note: Art and science may be on the opposite ends of the spectrum; but when light passes through the prism, both artists and scientists will shine together.

Extra Credit: Digitizing and Manipulating Sound by Ryan Andre Magsino

Sunday, March 15th, 2009

Extra Credit: Digitizing and Manipulating Sound by Ryan Andre Magsino

At the Sound and Science Symposium, Curtis Roads, a composer of electronic and electro-acoustic music specializing in granular and pulsar synthesis, author, and computer programmer, touched base on sound and how it can begin one thing and evolve as another. Specifically, he reflected on his own background in the rise of digital sound and visualization.

The Man of the Hour (the length of his lecture anyways...)

Curtis Roads, The Man of the Hour (the length of his lecture anyways...)

Today, most of us have a microphone attached to our laptops/notebooks. However, such an idea would have been refuted decades earlier. Prior to the boom of personal computing, most audio recording, synthesizing and rendering were done on a top notch network of processors. Roads revealed that the idea of a personal computer performing the same function was outrageous at the time, but it did not stop computer manufacturers. And so, the ability to digitize sound was made available to those who could afford and understand it.

On the forefront of such technological breakthrough was Curtis Roads. His initial attraction to computer music was prompted by “a fascination with algorithmic composition processes tightly coupled with digital sound synthesis.” As an audio-technician per say, Roads utilized Gabor’s sonic model in which Gabor observed all sound can be viewed as a combination of elementary functions bounded in frequency and time. Roads spoke of his endeavor to take the model into digital context. And so, Roads felt the” notation of electronic (/digital) music is often graphic rather than symbolic.”

Of the many products Roads has produced, he has developed both Creatophone, a system for spatial projection of sound in concert, and Creatovox, an expressive new instrument for virtuoso performance that is based on the synthesis of sound particles. But the important thing to take from this is the image and space visualization through audio. Roads was one of the developers interested in the isolating sound from specific areas in an environment. It is thanks to his work and many others that we have multi-channel and directional sound. In addition to this feat, Roads has also composed bits himself in which he assembles sonic fragments onto a timeline. To listen to some of his compositions, check out the following link: Hear Curtis Roads’ Subatomic Pop Symphonies


How could we possibly take sound to the next level? Instead of merely being able to record sound onto different channels to emulate an environment, what if we were then able to re-isolate those sounds into specified areas to be heard? After watching a TED talk with Woody Norris, he has invented such a thing. Dubbed HyperSonic Sound, Norris has created a special phonograph which can focus sound at specific areas. The applications of such a product are limitless. And so, the potential of sound itself is also limitless in possibilities.

The HyperSonic Sound technology gives you the ability to direct sound where you want it and nowhere else.

The HyperSonic Sound technology gives you the ability to direct sound where you want it and nowhere else.

Extra Credit: Sound + Matter = Life by Ryan Andre Magsino

Sunday, March 15th, 2009

Extra Credit: Sound + Matter = Life by Ryan Andre Magsino (Sound and Science Symposium)

Let me first start by pointing out the film which I will be referring to (all of which is available online):

Part 1:
Part 2:
Part 3:

“(The Film) has no characters, it has no people…it is to describe…the effect of Cymatic frequencies on texture, structure, water, oil. If you spare a little of your imagination as you watch the film as it runs, you will see many things that answer many questions.” - Introduction

From the film, it is deduced that sound is the basis of form and shape. From the way things align themselves to their motion, sound plays an integral part in their development. Through Cymatics, the study of wave phenomena, Swiss medical doctor and natural scientist, Hans Jenny documents how wave phenomena can supposedly “bring matter to life.” Not only does Dr. Jenny delve into the physical properties of sound, but deduces philosophical arguments stemming from the science’s significance.

Matter being subjected to wave phenomena.

Matter being subjected to wave phenomena.

After having watched the film, I cannot help but smirk when the thought of the universe forming from a “Big BANG” (emphasis on the bang). The idea of sound leading to the formation of just seems awfully redundant; but as Dr. Jenny showcases more and more examples of matter being passed through frequencies, I cannot help but arrive at such a conclusion. The implications of such a statement would be pretty grave. Does this mean to say that we are all just matter being passed through varying frequencies in this container we call the universe? If so, then could we somehow use this mentality on a macroscopic scale?

It would appear someone already came up with an answer to the previous question. Acoustic testing has many applications – one of which is used for the remedial measurements needed to bring a substandard structure up to the level required for compliance. This test is used quite commonly when engineering a building. Furthermore, it can assess how well designed and built the structure is and whether is it suitable for the intended purpose. Thus, the use of sound is essential to the development of structure especially in building a society.

An Acoustics Tester and Engineer from Stroma

An Acoustics Tester and Engineer from Stroma

Lastly, observing how sound plays a role in structure can easily be done with items found around the household. First, combine water and cornstarch to form a pasty compound. Next, place the compound inside a speaker. Last, play various frequencies through the speaker and watch the compound “come to life.” For reference, check out the following videos:

Extra Credit: Gastronomy, Our “Fast” Society and Education by Ryan Andre Magsino

Sunday, March 15th, 2009


Extra Credit: Gastronomy, Our “Fast” Society and Education by Ryan Andre Magsino

How many times have you heard the phrase, “You are what you eat?” Maybe, just maybe, it is repeated time and time again for a reason. Joined by graduate and gastronome David Szanto, we took a plunge down the rabbit hole and looked at the art and science of gastronomy. Breaking the term gastronomy into its etymological roots, we arrive at gaster- meaning “stomach” and –nomos meaning “law.” In other words, gastronomy is the study of the relationship between culture and food.

At this point, you’re probably wonder, “Wait just a darn minute. Are you telling me that there are people who actually study this kind of thing?” Apparently, David Szanto does. He is a gastronome, a person who reads/writes about food. So then what differentiates him from the rest of us? Most of us read about food and comment on it with others. Well, as it would turn out, gastronomes put much emphasis on GOOD food. What exactly counts as good food?

Gastronome and Graduate David Szanto

Gastronome and Graduate David Szanto

Szanto himself hinted at an organization with a mindset on answering such a question – Slow Food. Originally spurred by Italians in response to the replacement of fine dining with fast food chains, the Slow Food movement and organization has spread throughout the world (over 218 chapters in the U.S. alone). They envision food as “a common language and a universal right.” Slow Food envisions a world “in which all people can eat food that good for them, good for people who grow it and good for the planet.” In somewhat of a direct response to the rise of fast food chains, USA Today comments, “Slow Food aims to be everything fast food is not.”

But in our endeavor of becoming a “fast” society – driving fast cars, making a fast profit, obtaining food as fast as possible – do we really have time to squabble with Slow Food’s vision? I hope so. If not, we jeopardize our environment and society subsequently. Food is linked directly to our environment. We need to safeguard society by enacting food-system sustainability. This type of ignorance isn’t anything new. The last time we ignored sustainability to push for a fast society ended up in the global warming controversy. Should we allow the same to be said about food?

Now what? What exactly are we to do? One word: “Education.” We need to educate ourselves and others about the need of food-system sustainability. But who are we supposed to turn to when our society is bought out by large fast food chains telling us what to think when it comes to food? (Admit it, the Double Western Bacon Cheeseburger commercial stimulated your taste buds.) Gastronomes, that’s who. But are gastronomes even qualified to provide that information? Nowadays, gastronomes can even earn a degree proving such a qualification from the University of Gastronomical Sciences located in Italy. It may seem trivial to become a professional foods person per say; but if we really thought about food (what’s in it and how it’s made), we would probably go crazy. Thus, maybe we should leave the insanity to gastronomes and take their word into consideration.


To learn more about Slow Food, the University of Gastronomical Sciences, and other gastronomy related topics, visit the following links:

Fast Food Nation